Information Technology Glossary A to B

Information Technology Glossary A to B

2 Factor Authentication (2-FA):

2-FA provides a two-step sign-on process to network systems. This two-stage process provides an extra layer of security (also known as multi factor authentication) that improves upon the standard username-password by adding something that only that user has. This can be a a code supplied via SMS to the users mobile phone or a physical token or dongle. Charlton Networks provides a number of solutions in this area from manufacturers such as RSA or Sophos that also fully integrate into a Windows domain infrastructure. Find out more about 2-FA in our Cyber-Security Guide

Access Control List (ACL):

ACLs are used for filtering network traffic and form part of Charlton Networks ‘layered’ approach to secure network solutions. ACL’s control which specific device(s) can talk (establish communications) to one another and is a strong form of defense in secure networks. The ACL’s can be built using physical MAC addresses or IP addresses to identify the devices can can communicate and are set-up in firewalls / routers or certan types of network switch.

Access Point (AP):

An AP provides the transmission and control of wireless signals and forms wi-fi networks. APs can be installed acorss a large site to form a complex meshed wi-fi network, or deployed as single units to cover a small business. APs can be operated & controlled directly or via a management device (most typically a firewall or UTM). Increasingly, APs can also be managed via the cloud and depending upon the cost basic to advanced features are available. The key point is that secure wi-fi networks are built that allow robust failover and roaming across site without losing connectivity. The Wi-Fi Alliance controls standards and recent years has seen big improvements in speed and performance of wi-fi systems and AP technology.

Active Directory (AD):

Is a directory service that Microsoft developed for Windows domain networks. Active Directory provides a centralized management system, that controls everything from user log-on, password management through to the control of resources, user access and authentication. A server running Active Directory Domain Services (AD DS) is called a domain controller and assigns and enforces security policies for all computers, software and users. Charlton Networks provides full design, installation, set-up and support of Microsoft Active Directory.


Adware displays advertising—such as pop-up messages—which affects user productivity and system efficiency. Although many people view adware as undesirable, it is also a key component of a business model that can bring value to consumers in exchange for receiving advertisements. Charlton Networks recommend Sophos Enduser Protection which has the ability to block or selectively allow adware.

Advanced Endpoint Protection:

Charlton Networks provide advanced EndPoint protection solutions from Sophos, which cover user devices ranging from Windows, Android or Apple OS. This protection includes signature based anti-virus that prevents know viruses and malware, but also Intercept-X which covers ransomware and zero-day vulnerabilities too.


Charlton Networks use Altaro a virtual machine backup application, that provides a feature-rich backup and disaster recovery solution. Altaro provides web-based centralised management that ensures all our customer can be centrally monitor and managed. Backup and restores can be configured from any location, fully encrypted and managed from anywhere. Complex schedules, retention policies and other advanced settings can be configured, with a full suite of reporting and alerts that keep you on top of the daily activities. Altaro can be purchased for your own IT department or provided as part of our managed services managed backup via a monthly subscription.


Charlton Networks provide anti-spam solutions for business users and recommend Sophos cyber security solutions that identify thousands of new threats every hour. Sophos blocks over 99% of spam at the gateway and their anti-spam engine catches the rest.


Spyware installs itself onto a computer by stealth, subterfuge and/or social engineering and sends information from that computer to a third party without the user’s permission or knowledge, Charlton Networks recommend Sophos Anti-Virus, which is 100% Check mark-certified for spyware detection.


Charlton Networks provide a suite of anti-virus protection solutions, that cover all your computing, mobile devices and servers. Charlton Networks recommend Sophos Anti-Virus, which is 100% Checkmark-certified for spyware detection.


Charlton Networks are an APC partner, supplying the full range of APC Smart-UPS solutions. Smart-UPS provides high reliability, is ideal for SME businesses looking to protect servers and networking equipment from power disturbances and outages.


Charlton Networks provide systems where authentication process uniquely identifies the individual user. As a minimum this will include a user name and password, that is changed regularly and subject to a password policy. Authentication allows tracking and logging of users, including what they are accessing and when and forms part of our essential cyber protection services.


Charlton Networks are an Avaya Partner and provide the IP Office Platform, a proven, simple, powerful and affordable solution for business users. IP Office enables seamless voice, video and mobile communications, delivers an engaging experience on virtually any device and the ability to scale up or down with your business needs.


Charlton Networks are a Microsoft Gold Partners and provide the full suite of Microsoft Azure services and products. From infrastructure solutions, on-line backup and many other computing, network or storage needs, the Microsoft Azure platform helps us deliver private, hybrid or public cloud solutions to business users anywhere.


Data backup is an essential part of any IT system and Charlton Networks provide a range of solutions that backup your files, your systems, your file servers or your complete environment. Backup can be on-site or cloud based or both. Having all your data in one place can be dangerous, therefore we provide backup replication solutions too. Our flexible IT Support ensures your backup is monitored every day.


Bandwidth is the measure of data volume that can be transmitted. Bandwidth is frequently used to measure the speed of an internet connection and is typically measured in Mbps (Mega-bits per second).

Bespoke Software:

Charlton Networks provide custom bespoke software that supports your business workflows & processes. Tailored around your existing systems or build ‘from -the-ground-up’ our custom software solutions are a key enablement in your business efficiency and supply-chain management. See more details here.

Bit rate:

The speed at which ‘bits’ (chunks of information) are transmitted across your network or internet connection and typically measured in Mbps (Mega-bits-per-second).

Bring Your Own Device / BYOD:

Bring your own device (BYOD) relates to the policy of allowing company employees to bring personally owned devices (laptops, tablets, and smart phones) to their workplace and use these devices to access company systems and company data. Charlton Networks provide solutions such as Sophos Mobile Control to enable BYOD.

Business Continuity Plan:

business continuity plan (BCP) details how a business will continue to operate in the event of an unplanned disruption to service. It’s a survival guide! A guide that should consider every area of your business and how to maintain services should an incident occur.

More importantly, a business continuity plan should provide solutions for minimising downtown and getting back to business quickly! Because so many businesses are reliant on IT and technology one of the most fundamental parts of a business continuity plan is how to restore IT and systems, also known as a disaster recovery plan. Read our guide on how to plan for business continuity and avoid disaster.

Business Process:


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