Information Technology Glossary S to Z

Information Technology Glossary S to Z

Security Policy:

Charlton Networks helps companies create a set of policies and practices that describe how an organization manages, protects, and distributes its sensitive company information.


A computer that providers a central service, such as file storage, security or authentication. Servers can include web, database, authentication, DNS, email, proxy and file storage. Charlton Networks provides all these types of server.

Service Level Agreement (SLA):

SLA quantifies the level of service to be expected by defining what a service provider is going to provide. The definitions varies at business, application or network level.

Session Initiation Protocol / SIP:

SIP is a network protocol used in real-time voice (VoIP) and video applications. Charlton Networks use SIP in the hosted voice solutions.


Microsoft SharePoint is an application that provides an Intranet or Extranet for your business. This is a specialist website that allows staff, suppliers or customers to share and collaborate on information. As a Microsoft Gold Partner, Charlton Networks provides SharePoint solutions that provide this web-based collaborative platform and allow integration to other Microsoft Office and Microsoft Office365 applications.

Skype for Business:

Skype for business enable users to make voice calls, instant messaging and collaborate over the Internet. Skype for business is part of the Office365 suite and Charlton Networks help business users take advantage of this tool to improve business productivity.


Charlton Networks are a SonicWall partner and provide a range of SonicWall solutions that are proven and trusted by many small and medium businesses world-wide. SonicWall provide high quality and high-performance Internet security appliances and services that meet the increasing Cyber threats your business faces.


IT security is a growing concern to business users and Charlton Networks partner with Sophos, one of the leading cyber security vendors in the industry. Charlton Networks are a Sophos Gold Partner and understand the wide range of Sophos solutions that can be used to tackle your IT security challenges.

Storage Area Network / SAN:

A SAN is a specialist, high-speed network system that provides a highly scalable and resilient computer storage solution. SANs are typically composed of host servers, switches and storage devices interconnected using iSCSI and Charlton Networks can supply and support such systems.

Structured Query Language / SQL:

SQL is used to create, modify, and retrieve data from relational databases as part of a database or application service connecting multiple computers or clients. Charlton Networks use SQL in web server applications where a central repository of data is required and also in many other ways.


Unwanted e-mail messages or SPAM can be a drain on business and IT resources, wasting time and money. Charlton Networks protect business users from SPAM using a range of services and products.

SSL Certificates:

Charlton Networks provide SSL certificates that enable digitally security that encrypts an organization’s communications. We provide SSL certificates for your web server, to secure your remote access and strengthen your authentication. SSL certificates can secure credit card transactions, data transfer make web browsing more secure.


Microsoft Office 365 Teams is an application service that provides a unified communication solution. It allows users to collaborate in an online workplace, where they can chat, set-up video meetings, store files and share applications. This is a great application for company staff and can be extended to include suppliers, customers and other 3rd-parties.


Telecommunications involves the transmission of data (messages, words, images or sounds) across a long distance ‘carrier’ or WAN connection. Such connections can include copper or fibre-optic cables, wi-fi wirelsss or microwave radio solutions. More information on our range of connectivity and telecoms solutions here.

Unified Threat Management / UTM:

A unified threat management device combines hardware and software to provides multiple security functions in a single unit. Charlton Networks provide Sophos UTM, which provides firewall, content filtering, IPS, anti-virus gateway and many more functions in a single device.

Uninterrupted power supply (UPS):

A UPS is a device that allows your computer to keep running for at least a short time when the primary power source is lost. It also provides protection from power surges. A UPS contains a charger/battery system that kicks in when the device senses a loss of power from the primary source.

Virtual Local Area Network / VLAN:

A Virtual LAN is a configuration used to communicate amongst devices as if all devices were attached to the same ‘wire’ when in fact they are physically connected to different devices or LAN segments. Charlton Networks provide VLAN technology that helps segregate and control communications in an IP network.


The act of creating a virtual rather than a physical version of a computing environment, including computer hardware, operating system, storage devices and so forth.

Virtual Machine:

A computer file (typically called an image) that behaves like an actual physical computer. Multiple virtual machines can run simultaneously on the same physical computer and are controlled using an underlying system called a hyper-visor that runs on the host server.

Virtual private network (VPN):

A VPN allows remote offices or users to enjoy secure access to their organization’s network by creating a secure connection via the public internet. Charlton Networks provide a range of secure VPN solutions.

Virtual Server:

A computer file (typically called an image) that behaves like an actual physical server. Multiple virtual servers can run simultaneously on the same physical host and are controlled using an underlying system called a hypervisor.


A computer virus is a computer program that can copy itself and infect a computer. A virus can be spread from one computer to another via a network or the Internet or carried it on a removable medium such as a USB drive.

Voice Over Internet Protocol (VOIP):

VOIP enable voice communications over the internet / company network and has enabled the convergence of communications on to a single IP network. Charlton Networks provide VoIP solutions that provide high-quality business communications.

Vulnerability Scanning:

Automated testing designed to analyse computer devices, PCs, servers, networks and other network attached devices for the existence of potential cyber-vulnerabilities or known-exploits that might allow cyber criminals to gain access to a computer system. Charlton Networks provide a vulnerability assessment service, that provides an on-going service designed to keep your network secure. Get a free IT Audit to check your vulnerability

Web Hosting:

A service in which a vendor offers the housing of Web sites via vendor-owned shared or dedicated servers and applications at the provider-controlled facilities. The vendor is responsible for all day-to-day operations and maintenance of the Web site. The customer is responsible for the site’s content.


Wireless fidelity. A generic term for wireless LAN standards. Wi-Fi provides internet and intranet access to wireless devices (smartphones, tablets, laptops) in an organization or in public places. It is delivered via (internal or external) access points (AP).

Zero-Day Prevention:

Preventing zero-day exploits means preventing cyber-attacks that occur on the same day a weakness is discovered in software and fixed through a patch or an anti-virus signature update. Prevention is achieved by using Artificial Intelligence (AI) such as used by Sophos Intercept-X technology.

Zero-Day Vulnerability:

A zero-day vulnerability is a security flaw in software that has not yet been fixed. Such flaws are indentified by the manufacturer of the software or equipment and patches to to fix these issues are given the highest priority. Therefore, zero-day vulnerabilities have the potential to be exploited by hackers in a cyber-attack.