Information Technology Glossary K to R

Information Technology Glossary K to R

Local Area Networks (LAN):

Charlton Networks build Local Area Networks (LAN) that connect users to the IT business services they need. Whole building or campus LAN networks, built using physical Cat5 and Cat6 cabling, Fibre-optic connections, workgroup and backbone routing and switching products.


Charlton Networks supply and support Sophos any-virus software to stop Malware (Malicious software) from disrupting the normal operation of your IT devices, computers and file servers. Typically Malware is introduced by accessing a rouge web sites or by installing software that has been ‘infected’ (viruses, worms, Trojans, etc.). Our range of Sophos solutions prevent Malware infection.

Managed Backup:

This refers to the management and monitoring of your company backups or ‘outsourcing’ of this process. Managed Service Providers will ensure backups and restores are monitored, regularly tested and that your DR plans can be implemented if called upon.

Management Information System (MIS):

Charlton Networks provide MIS systems that help to organise, control & manage the flow of information across a company and between business functions or departments. MIS systems allow the historic analysis of performance, enable real-time reporting and also future predictions, such as capacity and other performance indicators.


Charlton Networks are a Microsoft Gold Certified Partner, Microsoft’s most highly accredited independent technical support providers. We offer support for Microsoft infrastructure, data and software solutions. We support Active Directory, Azure, Office365, Microsoft SQL, Microsoft Server, Microsoft SharePoint and many other products.

Mobile Device Encryption:

Encrypting data on mobile devices, including phones, laptops and tablets, helps prevent unauthorised access or loss of company data if the event of devices being lost or stolen. Charlton Networks supply Sophos Mobile Control that centrally manages all your mobile devices, including the management of encryption keys that can become a real problem when managing larger numbers of devices.


MySQL is an open-source database management system that enables custom / bespoke database systems to be created. The system is based upon Structured Query Language (SQL) and Charlton Networks use MySQL to build bespoke applications / databases for business customers.

Network Attached Storage / NAS:

Network-attached storage devices provide data storage that enables connected devices to share information. Charlton Networks provides NAS units ranging from simple sharing amongst a group of clients, as part of a backup solution or as part of a storage area network.

Network Connectivity:

Network Connectivity refers to the connection of a system to the Internet. Network Connectivity can include the connection of a device to a LAN via wired or wireless. It can also refer to the connection of a location via a WAN to the internet via a range of telecoms connections, such as broadband or leased line.

Network Security:

Network Security refers to a range of technical measures, systems and set-up that protect a computer network from cyber-security threats and potential attacks. These measures include Access Control Lists (ACL) and firewalls, through to 2-Factor Authentication (2-FA), Intrusion Prevention Systems (IPS) and password control / domain authentication. Network security is best when a range of ‘blended’ techniques are used, that provide a layered approach.

Office 2016:

Microsoft Office 2016 is a version of the Microsoft Office productivity suite, providing Microsoft Word, Microsoft Excel, Microsoft Outlook and a range of other productivity programs. Charlton Networks provides Office2016.

Office 365:

Microsoft Office 365 is a suite of on-line products that includes Email, Word, Excel and applications such as SharePoint, Teams and OneDrive. The suite of services is subscription based, with payment on either on annual or on-going monthly basis.

Off-site Backup:

Refers to establishing a copy of your backups away from the main site where the data exists. This can be a secondary company location or a cloud based backup solution.

On-site Backup:

Refers to establishing a copy of your data on the main site where the data exists. This tends to be the minimum and default position, with the potential to have secondary copies of backup stored in an off-site backup location.

One Drive:

Office 365 OneDrive provides an online storage service for a persons files and data, that are stored in Microsoft Azure cloud. OneDrive is included for all subscribers to Microsoft Office 365 and allows users to simply store and synchronise their files across multiple devices. So whatever device you are using, in whatever location, you always have your data files available.


PABX / PBX are multi-line business telephone systems used in a single business office or across a distributed business environment. Charlton Networks provide both on-premise and hosted telephone systems for small and medium sized business.

Packet Analysis:

Packet analysis involves the monitoring of data as it travels over a computer network. Charlton Networks use packet sniffers to audit, manage and fault-find computer networks.


Computer fraud that tries to trick a user into revealing confidential information, such as passwords, by posing as a legitimate request. This is often attempted via e-mail in an attempt to coax recipients into revealing private data. Charlton Networks provides Phish Threat from Sophos that helps educate users of these tactics and avoid disclosing their data.

Potentially Unwanted Applications (PUAs):

PUAs are generally considered unsuitable for the majority of business networks and can present a way of gaining access to company resources or data. Potentially unwanted applications include adware, dialers, remote administration tools and hacking tools. Charlton Networks recommend Sophos Enduser Protection which can block PUAs.

Power Over Ethernet / PoE:

Power over Ethernet or PoE is a defined standard that passes electrical power via an Ethernet LAN network. This allows a single cable to provide both data connection and electrical power to devices such as wi-fi access points, IP cameras, and VoIP phones.

Private Cloud:

Charlton Networks build private cloud solutions that operate over the Internet, but which are specifically built and restricted to a single company or a select list of users and not the general public.

Public Cloud:

Charlton Networks provide public cloud solutions that are available over the Internet to any company or individual and which offer a standard set of products / services. An Example of this would be Microsoft Office365.

Quality of Service (QOS):

A measure of network performance that reflects the quality and reliability of a connection. QoS data traffic policies guarantees certain amounts of bandwidth are reserved for specific applications and can be very effective where VoIP services must compete with general internet browsing and downloads.

Recovery point objective / RPO:

A recovery point objective (RPO) is the age of the file(s) to be recovered from a backup process / operation. This is required when a computer system or network goes down and live data is lost. RPO is important when planning backup and disaster recovery strategies and Charlton Networks helps business customers understand the impact of data recovery.

Recovery time objective / RTO:

The recovery time objective (RTO) is the estimated time needed to restore an IT system or IT services following a disaster or disruption incident. Charlton Networks helps SME business plan and understand current RTO and helps them improve recovery time in order to avoid unacceptable losses in business continuity.

Remote Access:

Charlton Networks provide SME business with the ability to connect to their networks from any external internet connected location. Solutions range from remote-access software and other dedicated communications devices, that provide 2-factor authentication (2FA) or integrate in to a Microsoft Active Directory (AD).


Refers to either a single file or a complete system being restored from a backup set.


Refers to how long copies of backup data are held for. i.e. The longer backups are retained, the further back in time data can be recovered.

Risk Analysis:

A risk analysis systematically identifies critical system resources and threats, quantifying potential impacts / losses of productivity and recommends how to mitigate such risks via a range of countermeasures to eliminate or minimize exposure.


Hardware or software that connects two or more networks. Functions as sorter and interpreter by looking at addresses and passing bits of information to proper destinations. Software routers are sometimes referred to as gateways. A switching/routing system that receives information packets and routes them according to pre-established protocols or the header information in the packets.